The Bard Review – Volume 2


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Capitalism is synonymous with anti-communism. How much of communism is still haunting us? Perhaps it is not haunting us, because dead souls haunt us. Perhaps it is alive and we just turn a blind eye to it. Now, with the rise of China and Russia, both of them imposing their communist ideologies on the world stage it seems that we need to revisit and reconsider how communism has survived as a living spirit. Literature is the most beautiful and condensed reflection of the social order we live in. In the second volume of the Bard Review we search through the communist strain of thought from Gogol onwards till Solzhenitsyn in Russian literature. Then see how Manto, Chugtai and others during the partition time got influenced by communist ideals. It is a question that has become all the more relevant now as American hegemony whose democratic foundations are under deceptive attack from within and without.


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